When it comes to cybersecurity, we often think of high-level hackers stealing crucial government and corporate data. In this article, we will delve into an important and often underestimated topic that affects many individual users: malware. While the term may sound like something out of a science fiction movie, it is actually a much more tangible problem than you might think.

Let’s start with the basics: What is malware? Malware refers to malicious software created by cybercriminals to infect our computers and steal valuable information such as passwords, banking data, important documents, and more. Moreover, malware can damage or disable systems, networks, and devices, even taking control of them. This could allow attackers to exploit our resources for illegal activities such as launching additional attacks, mining cryptocurrencies, and much more. In short, it poses a real threat to the security of all online users.

There are simple and effective ways to defend against malware and protect your data. The first step towards security is awareness and understanding of the dynamics involved in malware. Many malware are transmitted through malicious links to attack our computers. Identifying and recognizing these links is crucial if we want to keep our data safe.

Prevention is the best cure, and in this article, we will discuss common types of malware and their attack methods. Additionally, we will provide some tips on how to defend against them. Specifically, we will analyze two classes of malware:

  • Based on the method of propagation:
  1. Viruses
  2. Trojans
  • Based on the ultimate goal:
  1. Ransomware
  2. Adware
  3. Spyware

Still sounding like science fiction? Don’t worry, after reading this article, it will all become clearer. Now, without further ado, let’s explore the most common malware and how to defend against them.

Most common malware, based on the method of propagation:

a. Viruses:

Let’s start with the most well-known and widespread type of malware: viruses. These programs install themselves on our PCs without our consent and autonomously replicate, infecting files and folders—just like viruses in our bodies! Viruses can be transferred from one computer to another through emails, USB drives, files, infected websites, and more.

How to defend: The first rule in protecting against viruses is prevention. Use reliable antivirus software and keep it up to date. Avoid opening suspicious attachments or downloading files from untrustworthy sources.

b. Trojans:

Trojans, or Trojan horses, belong to the virus category but differ in their mode of attack. While viruses replicate by infecting other files or computers, Trojans act as bait. They appear as legitimate programs but hide malicious code, which is the actual malware. They can be used to steal passwords, banking data, or create backdoors to our PCs—hidden access points.

How to defend: Again, prevention is key. Use a good antivirus program and avoid downloading and installing software from unofficial sources or clicking on suspicious links.

Most common malware, Based on the ultimate goal:

a. Ransomware

Ransomware is the web outlaw that locks our computer or encrypts our data, making it inaccessible, and then demands a ransom in exchange for their “release.” This type of malware is becoming increasingly widespread, especially targeting companies and government organizations that have a strong incentive to pay in order to regain access to their data. Ransomware can be spread in various ways, with the most common being phishing, which we’ll discuss below. However, this malware can also be obtained by clicking on links from compromised websites, downloading free software that contains malicious code, or not adequately protecting one’s cybersecurity and thereby becoming vulnerable to remote attacks.

How to defend yourself: To avoid falling victim to ransomware, it is important to regularly back up your data, use up-to-date security software, and never open suspicious attachments or links.

b. Adware

Adware can pose a threat to our browsing experience. It is software that displays invasive advertisements on our PC, often associated with free programs or dubious websites. The goal of adware is to generate profits for the program’s authors, such as generating fake web traffic to online advertising platforms. It can also collect information about our browsing and purchasing habits without our knowledge or consent.

How to defend yourself: To avoid encountering adware, avoid downloading programs from unreliable sources. Additionally, if you notice the presence of invasive advertisements on your computer, try to identify the source of the problem and uninstall the associated software. Some web browsers like Chrome provide AdBlock systems that block advertisements, limit pop-up windows, and filter web content, helping to defend against adware. There are also other solutions that allow you to do this and much more without burdening the computer (both in the business and private sectors).

c. Spyware

As the name suggests, spyware is a type of malware used to spy on our activities on the PC. It can be used to collect personal information, record our conversations, monitor our web activity, capture our passwords, and so on.

How to defend yourself: To avoid being spied on by spyware, use updated antivirus software and avoid downloading programs from unofficial sources. Additionally, always keep an eye on the abnormal behavior of your PC (e.g., the automatic startup of unknown programs) and be cautious about requests for access to personal data.

Finally, let’s talk about a widely used attack vehicle: phishing.

Attack vehicle: Phishing

Phishing is not a type of malware but a technique used by hackers to steal personal and financial information. It involves sending emails or messages that appear to come from reliable sources (such as banks or online services) but are actually fake and aim to convince us to provide our credentials.

How to defend yourself: To avoid falling victim to phishing, use updated security software and never provide your credentials to suspicious websites or services. Also, be cautious of suspicious emails and requests for personal information. In general, remember that government or financial institutions such as banks never ask for data to be provided via email or outside their official pages, so any such request should be treated as suspicious. Furthermore, always verify the email address of the sender, especially if they are asking for sensitive information about your accounts.

In conclusion, defending against malware is possible but requires some attention and awareness. Use updated security software, avoid downloading programs from unreliable sources, and be cautious of suspicious emails.

By following these simple guidelines, you will be able to protect your online privacy and navigate safely on the internet.